Learning disability refers to a heterogenous group of disorders, manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition of the use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities. The main objective of the study was to compare the learning disability among early adolescents in government and private schools of Kathmandu. The cross-sectional descriptive comparative study design was used among total 200 respondents i.e. 100 from government schools and 100 from private schools who were selected by non-probability convenient sampling technique. Data collection was carried out using the structured self-administered open and closed ended questionnaires of Learning Disabilities Battery i.e. LDB-BB. The data analysis was done by using SPSS.24 using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The study found that majorities of early adolescents of government schools had more percent of learning disabilities than those of private schools. There were 17% of 13 years, 25% of 14 years and 58% of 15 years in government schools whereas 14 % of 13 years, 24% of 14 years and 62% of 15 years in private schools. In total of 200 respondents there were nearly equal percent of males and females in both government and private schools. In government schools, 30% had severe dyslexia and 17% had mild dyslexia, 20% had severe dysgraphia and 11% had mild dysgraphia, 30% had severe dyscalculia and 6% had mild dyscalculia. Likewise in private schools, 4% had severe dyslexia and 14% had mild dyslexia, 6% had severe dysgraphia and 2% had mild dysgraphia, 10% had severe dyscalculia and 6% had mild dyscalculia. There is significant association between learning disability and demographic variables like area of living and type of school as they were significant at 0.05 level of significance so, the null hypothesis was rejected. Based on these findings, it can be suggested that government should focus on new strategies and techniques to identify and minimize the learning disabilities among adolescents in schools. It is important to realize that learning disabilities can affect an individual's life beyond academics and can impact relationships with family, friends and in the workplace.
Technology enhances capacities and compliments abilities. Use of technology helps in reducing the effects of impairment or disability. Thus, As a result, PWD becomes a productive member of the society. Today, an attempt is being made to deal with enabling technologies which have not only reduced the effects of blindness but also enabled persons with low vision and blindness to join the work force of the present century. But GST imposed ranging from 5% to 18 % on assistive technology/ devices such as Braille typewriters, Braille watch, Braille paper, and orthopedic appliances has put an extra financial burden on PWDs as these appliances would be more costly now. Subsequently, it would influence accessibility, employment, education and daily life of PWDs. Charging GST from PWDs is not justified therefore, Govt. of India should exempt these assistive devices of PWD's from any type of tax and grant support to make them them more independent with these technological innovations.
Present study aimed to examine the need of home program manual for handling children with Autism. The Home Program is an intervention plan created specifically for parents to carry out in the home with your child. Since the child usually covers minimal hours of therapy at the center each day, or most children no therapy at all, it would greatly benefit the child if the parent/caregiver could provide the required intervention at home. Each minute of the child can be a learning opportunity for the child with the parent providing hundreds of instructions for the child to follow each day. Therapy includes providing instructions through table top activities, fun and play, academic teaching, social guidance, stimulating speech as well as teaching daily living activities. ABA (Applied Behaviour Analysis) strategies are used to teach the child a particular skill by breaking it down into small steps and teaching the child each step in a hierarchical manner. A sample of eight mothers of children with autism of the age 5 to 12 years selected for the present study. Data obtained from the Focus Group Discussion were analysed using thematic analysis and the importance of home manual for parents with autistic children were discussed.
Tobacco, alcohol and smoking intake can cause preventable deaths as such the study was done to investigate into the relationship between smoking, tobacco and alcohol intake status in relation to vitamin B12. A random purposive sampling was used to select 300 participants from a multispecialty hospital of Indore city on self consent basis. Information regarding smoking, tobacco and alcohol consumption was collected using predesigned questionnaire. Their biochemical report of serum vitamin B12 was obtained from hospital records. Mean, SD, frequency and percentage were applied to characterize the study population and Chi test and ANOVA were used to assess significance of difference among the attributes. P-values <0.01 was considered minimum level of significance. Mean±SD reveals that no significant differences in F values were found for all conditions of smoking, tobacco and alcohol intake. Mean vitamin B12 level was found lowest among subjects with former smokers (272.25±175.34), current tobacco users (221.72±45.49) and current alcohol users (229.50±132.83) comparatively. Furthermore, percentage distribution of subjects was found significantly different in alcohol while no significant difference was found for tobacco and smoking.
Health is the most important in human life. Yoga is the means to improve health such as physical, mental, social and spiritual. Yoga is the path of soul to be one with god. Every person wants good health and desire to live a healthy life. There are some groups in our society who are facing problems related to health. That group is individuals with disabilities. In these days, yoga is used as a therapy. There are number of methods and techniques in yoga, like Pranayama, aasana, mudra, Prayer-Chanting and Dhyana, which helps the person to live healthy, happy, independent life and helpful in the process of rehabilitation of Individuals with disabilities.
Adolescent period involves several biological, cognitive and psychosocial changes (Susman & Don, 2009). Indicators and predictors of adolescent's mental health are essentially connected with not only the present but future health and health-related behaviors also (Galambos & Costigan, 2003). Hearing impaired individuals across their lifespan are more likely than hearing people to experience mental well-being difficulties whether in terms of mental ill health or more broadly in relation to feelings of positivity and negativity about one's self. In India, 63 million people suffer from significant hearing loss. Subjective wellbeing, or happiness, involves a number of distinct components, such as satisfaction with life as a whole or with significant life domains (e.g., satisfaction with social or work life), positive affect and low levels of negative affect (Diener, 2000). One of the factors that can have a considerable effect on individual's well-being is his/her emotional intelligence. Trait EI has also been examined as a possible determinant of happiness and most studies have concluded that it predicts various components of happiness (e.g., Extramera & Fernandez-Berrocal, 2005). The present study investigated effect of emotional intelligence on happiness among hearing impaired adolescents. 46 hearing impaired adolescents studying and living in special deaf school (Patiala school of Deaf and Blind, Saifdipur) in Patiala district were selected for the present study. Their age ranged from 11-19 years. T-test was used for statistical analysis, the results showed that high emotional intelligence has a significant on different aspects of happiness (positive affect, life satisfaction and interpersonal relationships.)
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act came into force from April 2010. RTE act says that every child in the age group of 6-14 years will be provided 8 years of Elementary Education in an age appropriate classroom in the vicinity of his/ her neighbourhood. RTE provides a ready platform to reach the unreached, with specific provisions for disadvantaged groups, such as child labourers, migrant children, children with special needs, or those who have a disadvantage owing to social, cultural economical, geographical, linguistic, gender or such other factor and they are called educationally backward children. Educationally backward children are the children who have troubles with education and their capability of learning belongs to the lower level than it is required according to the general standards. In every country there is a problem with educationally backward children and pedagogues work hard to create effective methods of teaching and improvement in the chances for children to receive regular and general education. Through this research paper the author tries to see the various hidden angles of the problem and the feasibility of solutions suggested by experts and agencies.
Infant mortality rate (IMR) is regarded as an important and sensitive indicator of the health status of a community. Infant and child mortality rates reflect a country's level of socio economic development and quality of life and are used for monitoring and evaluating population, health programmes and policies. The mother's age at delivery is crucial for the child survival. This paper is focused on the mother's age at delivery and infant mortality among Muslims and Hindus in rural Aligarh (Uttar Pradesh). The study is based on the primary data. The study was planned to 1) determine the mortality rate among neonates and infants. 2) To observe the pattern of the mother's age at delivery among Muslims and Hindus. 3) To identify the causes of the infant deaths. The determinants of infant deaths among Muslims and Hindus were ascertained using the survey method. In the study period, 338 live births and 25 deaths in children under 1 year of age were reported. The neonatal and infant mortality rates were 47.33 and 73.96 per thousand live births respectively. The high rate of infant deaths is found among women below 20 years of age. IMR in 15-19 years of mother's age is 101.27 which higher than 20-34 aged mothers. The IMR in 35+ aged mothers is 90.90 which is higher than the IMR among mothers of aged between 20-34 years. The study shows high Infant mortality among children born to women aged 35 or more. The age of mother is a significant variable in determining the infant deaths. The 20-34 aged mothers have lower IMR than any other bracketed age of mothers. The IMR is preventable through promotion of institutional deliveries and exclusive breast feeding, strengthening of referral system and education of mother.