The issue of disability has figured on the international human rights agenda ever since its entry into the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) in December 2006. Gender affects the equal right of men and women with regard to age, disability and religion. Men and women are to be equally treated but in practice women have less job opportunities and they get less payment when compared with men for doing the same jobs. These gendered differences can also be applicable for women with disabilities. Women with disabilities face various discriminations than men with disabilities in similar conditions. They are far more disadvantaged through their status as women, as persons with disabilities, and majority numbers as persons living in poverty. They are the most marginalized in Indian society. According to the Census 2011, there are 26 million people with disabilities in India and among them, 11 million were found to be women with disabilities. Government of India provides many opportunities in terms of education and employment to persons with disabilities. Particularly, the Rights of Persons with Disability (RPWD) Act, 2016 provides for 4% reservation in employment in the establishments of Government of India, State Governments and Public Sector Undertakings against identified posts for disabled population. In spite of these initiatives, employment to women with disability has become a critical issue due to various reasons. The major objective of this study is to examine the current scenario of employment and career opportunities for women with disabilities in India. This paper concludes with a brief discussion on the barriers, current status of employment and career opportunities for women with disabilities in Indian context. Raising awareness among the public and private employment sectors and creating inclusive society that challenges the negative attitudes would facilitate the women with disabilities to break the barriers and empower themselves for successful and sustainable employment. Key words: Women with Disability, Employment Opportunities.
The aim of the study was to understand the beliefs about the causes of schizophrenia and the help-seeking behavior among the relatives of the people with schizophrenia with respect to their gender. Data was collected from thirty relatives of people with schizophrenia- 15 Males and 15 Females. Beliefs about the causes of Schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behaviour. Questionnaire (Zafar et. al. 2008) was administered on the participants. The obtained data was analyzed and the Independent sample t test values were computed for each of the sub-scales (6 causes and 5 helpseeking behaviors). Results showed that there was no significant difference between the male and female relatives on help-seeking behaviors and the causes of schizophrenia except for the biological causes. It was found that the female relatives have a better understanding of the biological causes of schizophrenia as compared to the male relatives. Key words: Schizophrenia, relatives, beliefs, gender
The world for and of the disabled is changing at a rapid pace and the aspirations as well as expectations of people are also changing as fast. In the new scenario, the disabled are viewed as individuals with a wide range of abilities and each one of them willing and capable to utilise his/her potential and talents. In a country like India the numbers of the disabled are so large, their problems so complex, available resources so scarce and social attitudes so damaging, it is only legislation which can eventually bring about a substantial change in a uniform manner. Although legislation cannot alone radically change the fabric of a society in a short span of time, it can nevertheless, increase accessibility of the disabled to education and employment, to public buildings and shopping centres, to means of transport and communication. The impact of well-directed legislation can be profound and liberating. Rights of Persons With Disabilities Act, 2016 is a milestone in struggle for equal opportunities for disabled people in India which reflects a paradigm shift in thinking about disability from a social welfare concern to a human rights issue. In the Act, the types of disabilities have been increased from existing 7 to 21 along with additional benefits in the field of education, jobs and poverty alleviation schemes. Also stress has been given to ensure accessibility in public buildings (both Government and private) in a prescribed time-frame to ease the mobility of differently able people. Key words : Disability, RPWD Act, Impairment, UNCRPD
The purpose of the study is to compare the development of language skills among the children using cochlear implants and hearing aid users . The objectives of the study were 1)To find out the effect and compare the speech- language, phonology and cognitive skills of children using cochlear implants and hearing aid users . Sample comprised of 40 children with bilateral sensori neural hearing impairment aged 6-18 years. 20 children had moderately severe to severe hearing loss and using hearing aids, and 20 had severe to profound hearing loss and cochlear implantation was done. The measures consisted of the Peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT-III), a widely used to measure the receptive vocabulary (Dunn and Dunn, 1997) and the clinical evaluations of language fundamentals test (CELF-4), a commonly used test to evaluate multiple dimensions of receptive and expressive language (Semel et al.),2003. The data was collected and results were analyzed by using IBM SPSS version 20.0. Differences in the main speech and language outcomes between the two groups (hearing aids vs. cochlear implants) were compared using independent samples Student's t tests. When data were normally distributed. Nonparametric tests (MannWhitney U test) were applied for scores that were not normal. Key words: Language Skills, Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aid users
Social support is an important aspect for the well being of any individual be it one with or without disability. Visual impairments are pervasive in their effect on the individual's entire life - social, occupational, recreational and familial. Persons with disability face various difficulties including stigma, unrealistic attitudes, and prejudice from the society. This study helps the Persons with total and partial visual impairment to gain an insight in the amount of support they receive and develop a sense of personal worth which is relevant in the main stream of life so that they can get adapted to their life activities. The present study intends to investigate Perceived Social Support and Psychological Well being among youths having visual impairment. A data of 60 youths within the age range of 18 to 25 years respectively was collected. The data was collected from Mumbai city and Suburbs. Standardized tests such as Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWB) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were used. The data was analyzed using appropriate statistical test. The findings of this study is an attempt made to understand the psychology of this segment of society that would help address the issues / problems faced by these people and design therapies and interventions for them. Keywords: perceived social support, psychological well being, visual impairment
There are different types of disabilities and each of these come with their own set of issues and limitations. While most students in special education need to learn functional skills, teaching functional skills to students with intellectual disabilities represents different challenge than teaching those with disabilities that may be emotional or behavioral. Those with intellectual disabilities will need to have help comprehending various functional skills before they ever get to actually utilize them. The present study aims to examine the extent of functional ability skills among adults with intellectual disability in relation to the presence or absence of mother, degree of disability, duration of special school and regular school education and present status. The investigator randomly selected 200 subjects of 18-45 years of age from Ernakulam and Kottayam district of Kerala. A standardized tool was administered to examine the functional academic skills among the subjects. The result indicated that most of the adults with mild intellectual disability have moderate level functional skills while adults with moderate, severe and profound intellectual disability are in nonfunctional level. Key words: Intellectual disability, Functional skills