Sleep difficulties are frequently reported in cancer patients. Despite higher prevalence of sleep difficulties in cancer, it is often neglected by clinicians. There is a research evidence of applicability of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the management of insomnia. Limited studies have explored the utility of cognitive behavior therapy in the management of insomnia secondary to cancer. This single case study was carried out on a client having insomnia secondary to cancer. Twelve sessions based on cognitive behavior therapy were administered. Pre intervention scores of client on primary and secondary sleep related outcome measures were compared with the Post intervention scores of the client.The results indicated improvement in severity of insomnia following CBT. The present study highlighted the utility of CBT in the management of insomnia. More studies with rigorous designs and emphasis on process of change are recommended for greater understanding of insomnia in the context of cancer.
The autistic spectrum disorder are heterogeneous group of neurobehavioral syndrome, characterized by difficulty in the development of social relationship and communication skills limited or severely impaired imagination and extremely repetitive and rigid pattern of behavior. Children with autism become upset and have intense temper tantrums, stereotype movement and self stimulating behavior such as rocking, hand banging, hand flopping, head banging and self injurious behavior are common, especially among children with autism who also have mental retardation. The present study reported deep clinical examination and family interview with 10 autistic children with mental retardation. Present study has been undertaken with the objective to reduce problem behavior of autistic children and to assess effectiveness of the behavior modification to reduce problem behavior of autistic children. The sample constituted 10 centre based children with autism associated with mental retardation. Tools used were Indian Scale for assessment of autism, and Developmental screening test. The study showed significant difference between the two groups (control group and experimental group) in specific areas (like changes in behavioral pattern and tamper tantrum, self injurious behavior). The results show that behavior modification programme have positive impact to reduce problem behavior of children with autism associated with mental retardation.
Neuropsychology, a branch of psychology, aims to understand how the structure and functions of the brain relate to specific psychological processes. Totally scientific in its approach it shares its information processing view of the mind with cognitive psychology and cognitive science. Though one of most eclectic of the psychological disciplines, it overlaps at times with some areas of scientific discipline like neuroscience, philosophy (particularly philosophy of mind), neurology and psychiatry. Neuropsychology studies brain's behavior relationships. The term 'behavior' denotes a general concept and includes many other areas of scientific study like cognitive functions, emotional functioning and observable behavior. Language, attention, memory, visuo-perception, visuo-spatial ability, problem solving reasoning and planning all variables belong to the domain of cognitive functioning (Reed and Rogers, 2011). This paper is an attempt to draw the attention of all towards the brain-behavior relationship, the outcome if it goes wrong, what happens in the case of 'Intellectual Disability' and what is the need of the hour.
The present study deals about the association of safe drinking water practices with childhood health in slum dwelling population of a city of central India. 250 Households with children of up to 36 months age were studied for drinking water management and child health index derived on the basis of the occurrence of infectious diseases, hospitalizations, growth and clinical nutritional status, personal hygiene, and parental knowledge regarding IYCF practices. The child health index was categorized and compared with drinking water sanitation practices. Obtained results showed that 40.4%, 52.0%, 5.1% and 2.0% children found in green, yellow, orange and red zone of health index that means majority 59.6% are at risk of health hazards. Furthermore 6, 76.4% and 17.6% per cent of children respectively found in households who have open well, tube well and municipal supply as primary source of drinking water. 11.6% of household found not to filter water at home, whereas 96.4% households reported to never use any chemical water purifiers. Both these practices found significantly associated with child health index reciprocally. Education of population towards proper water sanitation at home level is indicated which will prove a cheaper and sustainable method for preserving childhood health.
Older people increasingly suffer social losses with age. The present paper talks about their issues, their problems and the solutions/ suitable measures to safeguard them from maladjustments in society. Traditionally, the care of old people has been the responsibility of the family. But new trends have emerged to transform family structures which has reduced the capacity of this institution to serve as the safety net for the less privileged. The emergence of nuclear family has changed the pattern of life enormously. The institution of family as the shelter for older people is gradually being eroded. The older people in India are much more vulnerable because of the less government spending on social security system. The general concerns of the older people include lack of financial support for livelihood, emotional support from their children, ill health and others. Older persons are generally neglected, ignored and in some cases abused. The abuse is more psychological than verbal. They need true love , affection and support from the children at the individual level and community levels, but state has also to support the older people in leading a life with dignity by instituting social security systems in place, by providing affordable housing, health care, formalization of employment etc.
The efficacy of behavioral approach in handling problem behaviors is recognized and authenticated. This cross sectional exploratory survey seeks to highlight consequence mapping as simple innovative easy-to-use add-on procedure in problem behavior change programs. A unique listing of 55 consequences reported by 42 parents (including 23 mothers and 19 fathers) as aftermath of problem behaviors in a clinical sample of 25 children (including 18 boys and 7 girls) with academic (N: 12) and developmental delays (N: 13) becomes the empirical ground to justify consequence mapping. The list and estimation on frequency, intensity of problem behaviors as well as identification of what is deemed as rewards is reported differently by fathers and mothers of the same children. The taxonomy, structure, content and characteristics of consequence maps depicting events or happenings following problem behaviors is found to vary by setting, gender, diagnosis, and parent variables. Even as the parents are unable to differentiate between skill and problem behaviors, the prevalence of multiple, ambiguous, inconsistent, selfcontradictory,ad hoc and arbitrary consequences for given problem behaviors is reported.The verbal or pictorial depiction of causal and functional analysis of behaviors afforded by consequence mapping is discussed as invaluable tool for planning or implementing problem behavior remediation programs.
Drugs as medicines are for saving human lives. Drugs as narcotics destroy human lives. It would not be out of place to mention that in the midst of medicinal revolution of drugs for the salvation of suffering humanity, there is also a pernicious growth of life destroying narcotics which are killing humanity. We, as responsible citizens have to decide whether to use drugs or abuse drugs. The parents, teachers, schools and the society have to take a call and share the knowledge with all those closest to them so that they are able to avoid drug abuse. Drug and substance use is a serious problem and adversely affecting the social fabric of India. Drug usage soon gets changed to drug abuse… it has no gender or social class, it can affect people regardless of social status and wealth… preventing early use of drugs may go a long way in reducing its risks…The young school/college going children are the most vulnerable group who need to be made aware of the harmful effects of drug abuse. Prevention of substance /drug abuse among adolescents requires awareness of individual characteristics that place them at risk. The biggest reason teens start using drugs is because their friends utilize peer pressure. No one likes to be left out, and teens (and yes, some adults, too) find themselves doing things they normally wouldn't do, just to fit in, to feel good, to do better and seek new experience. Therefore the teens need to be prepared and strengthened to keep a tight grip on themselves from giving in to tempting situations and say NO. The risk factors need to be targeted by adding protective factors so as to reduce the risk of teens abusing drugs. The risk and protective factors can be divided into five categories or domains: individual characteristics, peer group, school, family and community. The Protective factors like parental involvement, healthy school environment and teaching skills influence emotional well-being, health as well as academic outcomes of teens cultivating a sound values base in relation to health and drug use. Preventive drug abuse programs involving community and schools in addition to family can be very beneficial in drug/substance abuse prevention.