The current study evaluated the effect of environmental variables on vocational training of adults with intellectual impairment. A total of 42 adult trainees with intellectual impairment in different vocational training centers were administered International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. The participants belonged to mild, moderate, and severe categories of mental retardation. The results revealed the impact of environmental factors differed with respect to levels of severity of retardation. The same environmental factors served as either facilitators or barriers. The specific environmental variables such as physical infrastructure at home or training centers, attitudes and support of family, friends, and significant others made significant contribution to vocational training of persons with intellectual impairment.
Resilience is a characteristic which helps human beings to adapt positively to a situation in spite of being exposed to adversities of life. Visually challenged students in India face a number of adversities due to their sensory deficit as well as the psychosocial conditions that they are exposed to. This study is an exploration of resilience in visually challenged students by comparing their resilience to those students with no visual challenges. 50 visually challenged college students were compared on resilience as measured by the Resilience Scale by Wagnild and Young (1993), with 50 matched students with no visual deficits. The visually challenged students were significantly higher on resilience as compared to those without such challenges.
This study is based on the concept that antisocial behavior in the form of juvenile delinquency is predictive of adulthood. The sample of the study were 150 higher secondary students (75 boys and 75 girls) selected by random purposive (Volunteering) sampling method of Indore City. Information regarding some socio-economic aspects and occurrence of behavioral misconducts was done through a validated questionnaire cum rating scale prepared solely for the study. The questionnaire was designed in understandable form and language for the subjects. The factors of socio-economic status like Birth order, No. of brothers and sisters, caste, type of family, parents' education and occupation were found out and compared with the frequency of 28 behavioral misconducts of four categories as: economic, mental, psychological, and moral. The frequency of occurrence of behaviors was divided into 5 categories as always / often / not sure / sometimes and never. Mean of scores of behavioral misconducts obtained by each subject was found out and compared with their socioeconomic features and significance of their association was found out using Chi test. Results showed that with increasing birth orders, no. of siblings the rate of misconducts increased. Similarly, adolescents of ST/SC, extended and middle income families and lowly educated parents, housewife mothers and service men father showed higher occurrence of behavioral misconducts than their other counterparts, .So, it seemed evident, though, that early problem behavior should not be neglected because they are predictive of later, more serious, problems and, if it was acted on, then even simple interventions may be effective at reducing future delinquencies.
The country is striving to provide Education for All, under the Article 45 of the constitution of India; it has assured better services for all children including disabled. The POA called for establishment of special schools at the district and sub-district levels for the universal primary education of the children with special needs. The objectives of SSA can be realized only when, if disabled are included in the regular schools. In this context attitude of teachers becomes paramount. Hence, the present study was carried to study the attitudes of regular teachers towards inclusive education.
Spiritual Intelligence (SQ) is the intelligence with which we address and solve problems of meaning and value. “It is the soul's intelligence with which we heal ourselves and make ourselves whole. SQ is the intelligence that rests in that deep part of the self that is connected to wisdom beyond the ego, or conscious mind. It is not culture-dependent or value-dependent. It is our deep, intuitive sense of meaning and value; it is our guide at the edge, our conscience.” (Zohar and Marshall, 2000). Our spiritual intelligence allows us to be creative, and to think 'outside the box'. It gives us the ability to change the rules, and to alter situations. It allows us to deal with ambiguity and gives us a capacity for paradox. Children with special needs, even though lag in one or other area of development, too have the potential to develop their spiritual intelligence if nurtured properly. The sole and whole responsibility of promoting spiritual intelligence among such special children lies in the hands of teachers who deal with them. This paper analyses the ways and means to enhance spiritual intelligence among children with special needs so as to enable them to choose the 'right thing to do', whether it's the right thing for themselves, or for a group, or situation.
Present study is undertaken to teach money concepts to the children with mild Intellectual impairment. The Intellectually impaired children have a lacuna of recognition and identification of money due to their cognitive limitation. Researches have shown that continuos teaching by various methods enhance learning capacity of Intellectual impaired children regarding money concept. A sample of 25 mild mentally retarded students of age group between 13 to 18 years was selected randomly. Before after research design was used to observe the effect of 30 days teaching related to recognition, matching and sorting of coins. A self made schedule was used for the study. In this schedule a set of 25 items were framed and the responses measured in the form of performing or not performing the task. The results Indicated that a tremendous change in pre and post test scores. It was hypothesized that as the teaching about money concept goes on there was significant difference between pre and post test evaluation. In the various categories related to recognition, matching and sorting of coins of rupees one, two and five the enhancement in scores was found. Mild Intellectual impaired students enhance the money skills in them by the continuous teaching for thirty days.
Executive function is a broad term and is currently dominating the research in neuropsychology. It refers to multiple cognitive processes and behavioural skills that are required for purposeful, goal-directed activity, socially appropriate conduct and independent regulation of action and affect (McCloskey, Perkins, & Divner, 2009). Executive functioning basically is seen as umbrella term that encompasses several component skills. The key components of executive functioning are inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility and planning. These components are partially dissociable and show protracted developmental trajectories from early infancy to adulthood (Best, & Miller, 2010). There is substantial evidence supporting that executive function performance vary across different settings, so there is high consensus that comprehensive assessment of executive functioning must be performed across multiple settings (Sparrow, 2012). The collection of procedures used across multiple settings for comprehensive assessment of executive functioning consist of record reviews, interviewing parents and teachers, behavioural rating scales and standardised performance tests. Intellectual disability refer to significant deficits in intellectual and adaptive behaviour functioning. Comprehensive assessment of executive functioning has revealed significant deficits in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities as compared to their mental age matched peers (Henry, & MacLean, 2002). The new procedures that are commonly used in assessing executive functioning in children and adolescents with disabilities are discussed in this paper.
Cerebral Palsy is usually associated with a lack of motor control functions, particularly in motor control and coordination.Sensory integration therapy (SI) is one of the therapies used for the treatment of Cerebral Palsy and studies reported positive outcome, but effectiveness of the therapy is not yet conclusive. The study was conducted to identify the efficacy of sensory integration therapy for spastic cerebral palsy children to improve their physical movement and body balance. Experimental design with pre-post assessment was used. An eleven year old boy suffering from Spastic cerebral palsy attending a day care centre was given sensory integration therapy for two weeks with three sessions per week. Activities included in Sensory Integration are '?Tactile Brush', ' Joint Massage and play using the SI equipment. A checklist was used to find progress and results showed an increase in the physical movement and body balance. Sensory integration therapy is found to be effective in improving physical movement and body balance in Cerebral Palsy condition.
Present research was conducted with the purpose to study the effect of behavioural intervention program in enhancing the self-esteem and collective self-esteem among adolescents. The research was conducted on 74 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965), Collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measure self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. A self-structured behavioural intervention program was administered for three months to enhance low level of self-esteem and low level of collective self-esteem among subjects. In the interventional program teachers and parents were requested to cooperate. Pre and Post test design was used. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was applied to test the significance of difference between pre intervention scores and post intervention scores of self-esteem and collective self-esteem scores. Results showed that the mean self-esteem score in pre-measure is 11.31, which has increased to 17.42 in post measure and Z value is -7.51 that is significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre intervention self-esteem score and post intervention self-esteem score. Further, results showed that the mean collective self- esteem score is 34.73 in pre-intervention measure which has increased to 53.47 in post- intervention measure. The obtained Z value for collective self-esteem is -7.57 that is also significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre intervention collective self-esteem scores and post intervention collective self-esteem scores. Thus, results prove the effectiveness of interventional program in enhancing self-esteem and collective self-esteem.