Learning disability is diagnosed by a series of exclusion criteria. Children showing grade discrepancy in 3 Rs despite average/higher general and social intelligence are identified as learning disability. Background factors like the student being first generation learner, having suffered social and emotional abuse, neglect, disadvantage, poor teaching, frequent change of school, curriculum or medium of instruction, bad home or faulty school policies which can explain their poor academic condition is not to be confused as learning disability. This cross sectional exploratory intensive case study using random sampling of participant schools and purposive sampling of referred children attempts a quantitative analysis on the distribution of academic problems in relation to key variables and related correlates. Results indicate that out of the 2100 students covered across two schools, 115 children were identified and referred with academic problems for detailed assessment (Referral Rate: 5.5 %) including 81 boys (Referral Rate: 3.9 %) and 34 girls (Referral Rate: 1.6 %). Among the referred children, after detailed assessment, only 19 (16.5 %) children fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for 'learning disability. The others were either 'slow learners' (N: 11; 9.6 %), 'expressive speech delays' (N: 11; 9.6 %), or those with 'scholastic problems' as distinct from 'learning disability. A portion of children (N: 5; 4.4 %) referred by teachers actually had 'no problem'. The study highlights several invisible factors accounting for academic problems in school children not to be confused with learning disabilities, before ending with a plea on developing clear conceptual framework for diagnosis, identification and certification of these children relevant to our country as precursor to remediation and betterment of their quality of lives.
The aim of the present study was to examine the level of depression and anxiety in insulin- dependent, insulin non-dependent diabetics and heart patients. Anxiety and depression were measured by hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) rating scale by Zigmond and Snaith (1983). Thirty insulin-dependent diabetics, thirty insulin nondependent diabetics' and thirty heart patients were selected for the present investigation. Each group comprised 15 males and 15 females. Thus, the total sample in the present investigation was 90 who were selected from different hospitals of Kashmir. ANOVA and multiple comparisons of means were used to analyze the data. Results showed that insulin-dependent group scored higher than insulin non-dependent group and heart patients, and female scored higher than male on anxiety and depression. Results were discussed in the light of previous studies. It was concluded that insulin-dependent group experienced more anxiety and depression than insulin non-dependent group and heart patients. Moreover, females experienced more depression and anxiety than males.
Yogasanas increase the circulation of blood to the brain which helps calm the mind and enhances concentration skills resulting in enhancement of the power of recall. In the present experimental study, single-subject research design was used to examine the impact of yogasana practice on short-term memory of children with intellectual impairment. BASIC-MR (Part-A) was employed to know the current level of behaviour of children with intellectual impairment, whereas Draw-A-Man test was administered to measure I.Q. of the children. A short-term memory test consisting of two types of concepts (concrete and abstract) and four types of contents (edible, non-edible, digits and letters) was constructed. Ten adapted yogasanas were practiced by the children for six months. The same test for short-term memory was again administered. Since, none of the children remembered maximum number of all items before yogasana practice session; it is assumed that no one had good short-term memory. This means, the short-term memory had increased for all children with intellectual impairment due to yogasana practice session (six months).
Panchayati Raj Institutions the grass-roots units of self-government have been proclaimed as the vehicles of socio-economic transformation in rural India. Gram Panchayat is the primary unit of Panchayati Raj Institutions. The Pradhan is the senior-most Panchayati Raj functionary at the Gram Panchayat level. It is expected that role of Panchayats in providing education will address the issues of social and economic access as well as quality of educational facilities but the aim of providing education to all cannot be fulfilled until children with special needs are included in premises of education. Population of disabled in U.P. constitutes 15.76% of total population and 78.35% of them are habitant of rural area. The present study is conducted in Chandauli district of U.P. where literacy rate is more than the rest of India. The descriptive survey method is used in the present study to obtain the information regarding villager's view point regarding Grampradhan's role in inclusion of Children of Special Needs (CWSN) in Sarva Shaiksha Abhiyan(SSA). Findings reveal that gram pradhan role is only rhetoric & ground level realities of Grampradhan's role in inclusion of Children of Special Needs (CWSN) in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(SSA) Chandauli district is quite disappointing.
Modeling which is based on the visual imitation, is a teaching technique commonly used to teach children with intellectual disability. Children with intellectual disability are benefitted by modeling technique especially in learning functional skills or daily living skills. The present study was conducted to develop daily living skills among children with intellectual disability using modeling technique. Five children with mild intellectual disability studying at primary level were taken as sample. The investigator employed purposive sampling method to select the sample for the study. The selected samples were provided intervention through modeling in the four daily living skills such as toileting, grooming, mealtime activities and dressing. Pre and post test were administered to the sample before and after intervention. The “t” test was carried out for statistical analysis of the data. The statistical analysis shows that there was significant effect of modeling technique on developing daily living skills among the selected sample. Based on the above findings, it can be recommended that modeling technique which is a very helpful strategy can be used to develop daily living skills among individuals with intellectual disability
Learning disability (LD) is a neurobiological disorder in which a person's brain works or it is structured differently, affecting one or more of the basic processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written language. Such a disability may result in a problem with listening, thinking, speaking, reading, and writing, spelling or doing mathematical calculations. Parenting is the process of raising and educating a child from birth, or before, until adulthood. Deviations in the parenting style will really affect the children's academic performance, behavioral problems and thus parental stress too. When offspring won't respond as per the parenting, it will surely lead to increased stress among parents. Over importance given to academics and over burden given to mothers make the mother of the learning disabled to experience the stress. The present study investigates such parental stress in relation to their parenting behavior styles. The sample includes parents of learning disabled children (LD) and parents of non-learning disabled children (NLD), especially limiting to mothers. The data was collected using scientific tools and discussed as per the analysis.
Reading difficulties are the most common problem and are associated with poor longterm academic achievement. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical examination of research studies, which focus on interventions commonly used with people with reading difficulties and identifies effective methods that produce substantial benefits concerning decoding, reading fluency, accuracy and passage comprehension. In this article the researchers focused in describing reading process in terms of fluency, comprehension, orthography and automaticity following different approaches to reading like response to intervention, developmental and remedial approaches. To find out an effective intervention technique it is important to critically analyse various work done under the same field. Therefore the authors of the article critically analysed some recent studies on reading difficulties and suggested how better it could be done. So the authors hope, this article will provide valuable information on use of specialized instructional programs for the intervention of children with reading difficulties.
Peer victimization, also known as peer harassment is defined as physical, verbal, or psychological abuse that takes place in and around school, especially in places were adult supervision is minimal. The critical features that distinguish victimization from simple conflict between peers are the intention to cause harm and an imbalance of power between performer and victim. Hitting, name calling, intimidating gestures, racial slurs, spreading of rumors, and exclusion from the group by powerful others are examples of behavior that constitute peer victimization. Guilt is a moral emotion resulting from conflicting situation and effecting one's personal and inter-personal life. Physically challenged experience guilt due to their difficult self care and are seen as vulnerable and soft targets of victimization. Physically disabled adolescents are in the dual dilemma of dealing with their own unclear identities as well as difficulty in outward expression to the challenging situations in their social environment. Physical disability is the part of human condition. The content and structure of a current situation determines whether and individual feels guilt or it is in response to the stigmatization and ill treatment. The role of these reflexive emotions in individual's conformity to moral and social norms is considered. Viewing the significance of victimization particularly in escalating sense of guilt among the physically challenged direct and indirect exposure to victimization was examined using “multi dimensional peer victimization scale” by Mynard & Joseph, (2000) and level of guilt “Interpersonal guilt questionnaire-67” by O' Connor et.al., (1997) which measures guilt at four levels- survivor guilt, self hate guilt, separation guilt and omnipotence guilt. For this the total sample of 60 was considered, 30 were orthopedically challenged adolescents of 11-16 of age and 30 normal adolescents of the same age group were purposively taken from Delhi having similar social economic status (SES). The physically challenged groups were found significantly high on the perceived victimization and sense of guilt. The relationship between perceived victimization and sense of guilt was also found positively significant for both the groups.