Psychiatric disability has emerged as an important area of research because of its role in understanding the nature of illness. Schizophrenia, the disease of the brain, manifests with multiple signs and symptoms resulting in varying degrees of disability. The disability can be seen in the areas of personal care and grooming, social interaction and relationship, social functioning, vocational skills and job performance, and cognitive abilities. These in turn interfere with the normal role functioning. The present study is aimed at assessing disability amongst persons with schizophrenia. Disability assessment was done using WHO Disability Assessment Scale (II). The results indicate disability in all the domains assessed. Maximum disability was seen in the domain of 'participating in society' and minimum disability in the domain of 'getting along with people'. Association of level of disability with certain demographic variables and their implications have been discussed.
The aim of present study was to make a comparison of suicidal ideation (SI) among adolescent girls and boys and to study the sociodemographic and psychosocial background of adolescent girls and boys with high suicidal ideation. The sample consisted of 100 girls and 100 boys in the age range 16-19 yrs. Suicidal ideation Questionnaire developed by William Reynolds (1988) was used to measure suicidal ideation of adolescents and the information about sociodemographic and psychosocial background of adolescents with high suicidal ideation was obtained with the help of a self-constructed Performa. To compare SI in adolescent girls and boys, t-test was applied and to analyze sociodemographic and psychosocial details of adolescent girls and boys with high SI, qualitative analysis was done. The result revealed that suicidal ideation is higher among girls and boys and there are differences as well as some similarities in sociodemographic and psychosocial background of girls and boys with high SI.
The effect of menopause on voice has seldom been investigated, that too, only in singers. The present study aimed at probing if menopause brought about a significant change in voice parameters, and tracking the progression of voice changes post menopause, in teachers. 72 teachers were classified into reproductive (32), less than 5 years postmenopausal (20), and more than 5 years postmenopausal (20) groups. Recordings of phonation, reading and spontaneous speech were analyzed using the VisiPitch III software. Maximum phonation time and s/z ratio were also obtained. The subjects were given the Voice Handicap Index to investigate the awareness of voice changes. Results revealed changes in the (Fo), speaking fundamental frequency (SFo), and voice turbulence index (VTI); and very gradual changes in Maximum Phonation Time (MPT) and noise to harmonic ratio (NHR) post menopause. The teachers do not seem to be aware of menopausal changes but are aware of the voice problems due to overuse. This has implications in India, where teachers face greater voice abuse than in the west. The study also highlights the need to build awareness about menopausal voice changes, and include these changes as a variable for assessment in clinical situations.
The cumulative AIDS diagnosis statistics can obscure current trends in new infection incidence. In view of this, there is a strong need for scrutinizing the statistics of VCTC by taking note of availability of health facility and public on HIV/AIDS among the high risk young population. It has recently been observed that number of new HIV infection occurring annually is among the younger population (18-24 years). The public efforts to contain this hazard are extremely inadequate. Although, the threat posed by HIV/AIDS is as great as it ever was, there has been little effort to use the important new behavioral research developments in our understanding of how to help person particularly high risk population to protect themselves from contracting HIV infection. The studies conducted in this field suggest that most affected age group lies between the ages of 15-24 years. This raises questions regarding the awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS related issues among younger generation. The present paper defines the HIV/ AIDS concepts, types, origin, and how could they be prevented.
This paper presents a case report of a child, who had age adequate communication skills, normal speech development, no difficulties in writing but showed severe problems in 'reading' only. The results obtained from the psychological tests given to the subject, as a part of preliminary investigation could not assess the exact difficulty of the child. But further detailed analysis, showed that the child has difficulties in verbal reproduction of visual material. The detailed developmental history revealed that the child also had difficulty in 'naming'. In such a case it may be considered that the possibility of reading problem can be due to the difficulty in translation of experiences from one domain to another (visual-verbal). It is suggested that Colour Naming Test could be used as a diagnostic tool for assessing “Naming Difficulty”.
This study has been proposed to offer an understanding of an important psychological factor, namely, emotional intelligence for visually disabled students studying in integrated and segregated school settings and find out its impact on their academic achievement. The sample has been taken from integrated (N=28) and segregated (N=33) schools located in Delhi / New Delhi. Results of the study reveal that integrated visually disabled students are emotionally more intelligent than their counterparts in segregated schools. Similar results have been obtained for academic achievement. Correlation between emotional intelligence and academic achievement was found significant in both the settings. The investigator concluded that the type of school setting has a significant impact on the emotional intelligence and academic achievement of visually disabled students.
Educational Aspiration in broad term refers to a person's ambition for himself/herself and academic achievement. In every usage ambition and aspiration are nearly synonymous and are often used interchangeably. The purpose of the present investigation is to compare the educational aspiration and academic achievement among visually challenged students, 54 subjects (27 male and 27 female students) from Ahamadi School for Blind AMU, Aligarh, constituted the sample. Educational Aspiration was measured by Educational Aspiration Scale (EAS) FORM (5): developed by Sharma and Gupta. It consists of 8 tests, each containing 10 items of qualification. Academic Achievement was taken in terms of the aggregate marks obtained by the subjects in their final examination. Marks were noted down from the records of the aforementioned school. The't' test was used to examine the difference between the mean score of different groups.
Academic achievements of both the sighted or sightless students depend on several factors such as intelligence, school environment, educational aspiration, socioeconomic status, physical and social problems, home condition and family climate, self esteem, emotional and social adjustment, personality traits, study habits, attitudes and study environment and teaching learning materials etc. In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate the academic achievements of northeastern visually impaired students in relation to the socio-demographic variables, study habits and study related correlates. A sample of 100 VI students from 7-17 years of classes I to X of two residential special schools for the blind was selected. A self-designed socio-demographic data sheet was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics of the visually impaired students. The Test of Study Habits and Attitude (TSHA) was used to measure the study habits and attitudes of students. The annual examination scores of the students were collected as a measure of their academic achievement. Contingency 'C' test was used to find out correlation. Findings of the present study revealed a significant correlation between academic achievements and study habits of visually impaired students. The association between academic achievements and the age, grades, socio economic status and parental education of VI students were found statistically significant. Academic achievements of VI students were also found significantly related to study related variables like attitude towards teachers, attitude towards education, self confidence, concentration, coping with mental conflicts, home assignment, and attitude towards examination. Neither the gender of the students nor the school and home environments were the influential factors in the academic performances of VI students.
The present study intends to focus on the impact of technology on performance of visually challenged. Of the total sample size of seventy two, sixty six children were normal sighted while 16 students were visually challenged. All the students were eighth passed and were enrolled in the CCA course. The normal children were provided education in the conventional mode while the visually challenged students were exposed to multiple technology supported method which included a combination of screen reader and talking books. The result reveal that as compared to the fully sighted students the visually challenged students secured marginally better scores in the CCA exam. Based on the results it can be concluded that the visually challenged students can at least perform at par with their sighted peers if proper technological based education is given in a supportive environmental context. The result of this study is to be treated with caution largely because of small sample size. The only challenge for the society is to make adjustments in schools, training institutes and workplace through the use of ICT so that they are not only able to overcome their deficiency but also give their meaningful contribution in National development.
Parents' responses stated in case study forms of 440 students were analyzed to study the variables and characteristics surrounding the presence of learning disabilities. The study investigated variable background characteristics such as gender, age of first referral, family history, issues during preschool, behavior issues, help received from school and age of peer groups. The analyses revealed more males than females with learning disabilities, no family history, no presence of issues in preschool and no help received from school. Further the analyses indicated that children with learning disabilities played with peers of all age groups and that the majority of the children with learning disabilities had their first referral between ages 8 and 12.
Dyslexia is one of the most common occurring reading disabilities. A research was conducted to study the effect of Ron Davis approach and Eclectic approach on reading ability among primary school dyslexic children. Sample for the study consisted of thirty students of third and fourth grades, which were identified from ten English medium schools of Nawanshahr. Ron Davis approach was based on Davis Dyslexia Correction Program of Ron Davis. In the Eclectic approach researcher used Alphabetic Phonic Method, Behavior Modification Method as well as Multisensory Structured Linguistic Method as broad range approaches to provide remedial instructions. Both these approaches were employed to two experimental groups of ten students each, for the sixty sessions of thirty minutes duration. Analysis of co-variance was used as a statistical technique for analyzing the data. It was found that both Ron Davis approach and Eclectic approach were significantly superior to traditional approach for improving reading ability of dyslexic children
The present study in an attempt to investigate the perceived parental(father) behaviour and its relationship with the ADHD symptoms among children. The sample comprised of 400 male High School students. The subjects were administered ADHD symptom checklist and responses were collected from multiple sources regarding the presence of such symptoms, particularly the presence of inattentiveness and hyperactivity. Ten each from the inattentive, hyperactive and normal types were selected for the final study. Parent Child relationship scale (PCRS) was administered on these three groups of subjects (N=30). The result revealed that the inattentive, hyperactive groups differ in their perceptual scores on positive parenting style attributes compared to the normal groups. This article suggests parenting styles behavior and skills are significantly related to children's emotional development. Parent training programmes are most effective for children with conduct problems and aggression.
This paper attempts to study the remediation of arithmetical learning disability by programmed instruction and computer assisted instruction. A sample consisting of 46 arithmetical learning disabled children (28 boys and 18 girls) were divided into two equal groups. One group was taught through programmed instruction and other group was taught through computer assisted instruction. After four months (sixteen weeks) their achievement in arithmetic was measured and later compared for their achievements. Both the methods were found to be equally effective as a method of instruction. No significant difference was found, however mean scores indicate that computer assisted instruction (CAI) for remediation of arithmetical learning disability has an edge over program instruction method.
The National Institute for Rehabilitation Engineering (NIRE), a non-profit organization has given a paper which discusses important transportation safety issues for disabled. It discusses the special concession available for disabled for transportation. The special precautions that must be taken for people's safety have also been noted. It suggests that every disabled person should travel carrying papers with emergency contact information and application medical and Rx information.
Social development occupies very important place in the overall process of growth and development. It has implications for prognosis of children with intellectual impairment. The present study evaluated whether the social maturity scale alone can reflect on the social maturity, intellectual level and consequent adjustment in family and society of children with intellectual impairment. Thirty-five intellectually impaired children were administered Vineland Social Maturity Scale (Indian Adaptation) and Draw-A-Man Test. A significant relationship between the measures of social maturity scale and the I.Q. of the subjects was found. Further, with increasing severity of intellectual impairment, social development also decreases and age does not have any effect on social development. Social quotient increases from profound to mild level of intellectual impairment.
Relatively little research focuses on the pattern of relationship development in people with intellectual disability. This is basically due to the low expectations of researchers concerning the relationship-building ability of people with intellectual disability. This paper employs the case study method to identify and bring out this pattern. A 10-month-long interaction between 11 students with intellectual disability and the researcher resulted in intimate relationships for both. The pattern based on these relationships depended largely on the relationship histories of the participants. The initial behaviour, the nature of the interaction, and the intensity of dyadic relationships were observed to be important markers in the relationships. On the basis of the initial behaviour, the participants were divided into two groups: inviters and resistors. While the inviters had successful relationship histories, this was problematic for the resistors. When the participants were allowed to take lead roles in the interaction, remarkable changes were observed for the resistors also. The analysis reveals that participants with the most relationship problems developed more intimacy in the dyadic relationship. This relationship pattern throws light on the ability of people with intellectual disability to form working models of relationships upon which each new relationship is built.
Computer has changed the entire lifestyle of people. Those with disabilities are no exception. In the area of Mental Retardation where individualized instruction is essential, the computer is a boon. It provides individual learning time to the student and after the child is trained, can use the computer on his own and can engage the other children also. Leng (2005) and Cates (2005) investigated the functional relationship between student's accurate response level and two mathematics drill procedure. They suggested that the two somewhat older students showed higher levels of accurate responding in the computer condition, while the two younger students showed higher levels of accurate responding in the peer-tutoring condition. It was hypothesized that Computer Assisted Instructions will help the mild mentally retarded children to solve the arithmetic problem. It is a pre and post experimental design in which the child's ability will be assessed regarding counting concept and addition capability, prior to the application of CAI as well as after that. Five intellectually impaired children (mild category) ware selected from Play Therapy Unit at Ramakrishna Mission, Vivekananda University, Coimbatore. None of the children had exposure of Computer Assisted Instruction. Educational Software for Special Children (Mentally Challenged): by NIMH (1994) was used in between pre and post sessions. It is reported that Computer Assisted Instruction teaching strategies enhances the ability and achievement level of children with mild mental retardation.
It is a basic study and aims to find out the Socio economic profile of persons with ASD attending services at NIEPMD and to correlate the condition of Autism with the socioeconomic profile. The study also focuses on various socio- economical variables of families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study revealed that most of the children diagnosed with ASD are from below poverty line, hence there is a need to provide quality rehabilitation services to the children from poor socio- economic background and also the need to establish service centers in the rural areas because most of the children with ASD are left unnoticed in the rural areas due to lack of awareness about Autism.