This paper describes the historical progression in understanding and treatment of mental retardation. It explains the salient features of the definition of mental retardation. The concept of intellectual disability is subsumed in the current concept of disability. The justification and need for change in conceptual understanding and terminology is presented through an explanation of the integral components of human functioning model.
Children with multiple disabilities often experience difficulties in various areas like motor, speech and language, cognition and socialization, depending upon their combination of more then one disabilities. A holistic approach facilitated through multidisciplinary team along with yoga therapy has found to be an effective method in improving the status of children with multiple disabilities. Various yoga asana like katti sakthi vikashaka asana, Tadasana, Padhasthasana, Pachimothangasan, Uttan padhasana, kandhrasana, Danurasana were given by the yoga teacher, to the subject for period of 6 month. The post evaluation results show that there has been a remarkable improvement in motor, and other related functional areas. This study reveals that yoga therapy in combination with other techniques brings considerable improvement in children with multiple disabilities.
Children of nursery and K.G. classes were tested and 10 slow learners from each school (out of six schools ) and a total of 20 slow learners from each category viz. high, middle and low income groups were selected. I.Q. and general information served as independent variables and cognitive abilities comprising of verbal, perceptual, quantitative, memory and general cognition of slow learners were the dependent variables. Binet intelligence test developed by Terman and Merill (1972) was used to identify slow learner children. McCarthy Scale of Children's Abilities (1972) was administered to assess the cognitive abilities of children. The 60 slow learners were divided into two groups i.e. experimental (30) and control group (30). On the basis of pre-testing, intervention package was developed and implemented to the mothers of experimental group children for a period of 2 months on weekly intervals. Post-testing results of the study concluded that experimental group performed better in all the activities of verbal aspect, perceptual performance, quantitative and memory aspect. The increase in cognitive abilities of slow learners were due to the intervention package. The maximum gain was in memory followed by gain in perceptual performance, quantitative and verbal aspect. Father's education ,family income, facilities and reward provided by school were also found significantly associated.
The present study is an attempt to explore the cognitive functions (attention and memory) in learning disabled children with and without epilepsy. The sample included 30 children between the age group of 7 to 14 years selected by purposive sampling technique. The assessment of cognitive functions was done using two standard tools. The results indicated no significant difference in attention of learning disabled children with and without epilepsy while in memory they differed to a certain extent. It was concluded that cognitive deficiency is similar among learning disabled with or without epilepsy.
It is observed that mentally challenged and autistic children suffer from delayed developmental problem. The present study intended to examine the extent of behavioral problems and social maturity among mentally challenged and autistic children. Furthermore relationship between the two variables namely behavioral problem and social maturity were also examined. In total sixty (30 moderate mentally challenged and 30 moderately autistics) subjects of 14-18 years of age were purposively taken from two different Institutions of Delhi. Quay and Peterson's revised behavior problems Checklist was used to assess behavioral problem while Raj enlarged edition of Vinland Social Maturity Scale was administered to examine social maturity among the subjects. The results indicated that the behavioral problem among autistics were significantly higher than the mentally challenged while on social maturity front mentally challenged were significantly better than the autistic children. Moreover the behavioral problem and social maturity scores were also found inversely correlated with each other .Thus all the three hypothesis of this study was found to be confirmed
In this study life satisfaction of type II diabetics and non-diabetics was compared. It was hypothesized that there is a significant difference between life satisfaction of type II diabetics and non-diabetics. The sample of the study consisted of 50 subjects from urban population of Agra in the age range of 50-80 years. The sample was divided into two groups of 25 each (Group I: 25 diabetics and Group II: 25 non-diabetics).Group I and group II was matched in terms of age, education, marital status and SES. The tool used was PGI Wellbeing Scale by Moudgil, Verma, Pal and Kaur. It consists of 20 items. The maximum possible score is 20, indicating that individual is highly satisfied with life. t-test was used to see the significance of difference in life satisfaction of type II diabetics and Non- diabetics. Result showed that there is a significant difference (t value = 3.45<.01) between the life satisfaction of type II diabetics and non-diabetic, non-diabetics having greater life satisfaction in comparison to diabetics.
Most visually impaired children have useful residual vision and their principal sense modality is a visual one despite their visual impairment. Genesky, et. al.(1979) noted that more than 75 percent of the legally blind had sufficient residual vision to read ordinary print. Reading plays a vital role in the education of low vision children. Acquiring and mastering skills in reading printed materials in early stage of life enable the low vision children to make correct use of residual vision ultimately enhancing their visual functioning. With the help of magnification of printed material as per individual needs, the low vision reader gains access to visual information and therefore builds his/her ability to gain knowledge from what he learns. The quality of these large print materials and the manner in which they are utilized may therefore contribute to the relative effectiveness of their use by the reader. Developments of technology particularly in computer application give accessibility for visually impaired and low vision individuals to regular print materials. This study, concentrated on 30 low vision large print readers in the age group of 13-15. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the performance of low vision children in computer assisted reading.
Tic disorders are characterized by the persistent presence of tics, which are abrupt, repetitive involuntary movements and sounds that have been described as caricatures of normal physical acts. The best known of these disorders is Tourette's disorder, or Tourette's syndrome. Tourette syndrome, sometimes known as Tourette's disorder, is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary movement of the eyes, limbs, or trunk (motor tics) and repetitive vocalization (vocal tics) that persist for at least twelve months. Children with Tourette's are also more likely to display temperamental, sensory, stuttering, and social issues and are oftentimes diagnosed with ADHD, OCD, or other disorders. The present article focuses on the Nature, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Tic disorder.
As integrated school setup has tremendous influence on the students with visual impairment. Present study has been undertaken to study the role of general teacher in an integrated classroom. The sample consisted of 80 general teachers (42 female and 38 male) teaching at integrated schools from the selected districts of Karnataka State. The methodology used was a pre-test and posttest method with an intervention programme. Purposive sampling method was used to select the samples by contacting National Association for the Blind. The standardized tool 'Kulsum Teacher Effectiveness Scale' by Umme Kulsum was used. A significant difference was found between respondents in teaching aspects practiced in regular classroom environment in both pre test and post test. A nonsignificant difference was observed between the respondents of private and government schools towards their role as a teacher in the regular classroom environment. The study highlights the need to sensitize the general teachers on their role by enabling them to equip themselves better to meet the growing needs of the visually impaired. children in integrated classroom environment.
The aim of this study is to find out whether the athletes' performance is affected by substance abuse. The sample consisted of 200 subjects, 100 athletes from individual game and 100 athletes from team game, selected from Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedker University Agra and Dayalbagh Educational Institute Agra, age-range from 18 to 25 years. Only those athletes were selected who have participated in District, State and National Level competition at least for last two years. Both the groups were matched in terms of sex, age, marital status and education. Self-constructed Athlete Performance Scale (2008) was used. ANOVA results showed that athletes' performance is affected by substance abuse. Results of the present study also indicated that use of performance enhancing drugs are more common among male athletes than female athletes.
In the present study an attempt has been made to give training to a mentally retarded child in card making. One mentally retarded child having the mental age of 6 years was selected for the above purpose from Jodhpur city. It was hypothesized that the child will be able to make cards as taught after 15 days. It was a co-relational type of research. A comparison of before and after training revealed the degree of change in the child's performance. Material used in the present study were white card sheet, water colour, colour plate, brush and straw. After training of 15 days a remarkable improvement was seen in the child's performance. As the trials increased, the number of errors decreased. Results also reveal that persons with mental retardation can be engaged in economically useful activities if systematic training and guidance is given.
A sample of 200 children of 2-3 years old from two villages of Block-One area of Hisar District Hisar were studied to see the improvement in delayed motor skills. Village namely Kaimari acted as Experimental group and village Mangali acted as Control group. Nancy Bayley, second, edition (1969) and Berry's Development Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) (1989), assessed these children for their motor skills with the help of Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). On the basis of results obtained after pre-testing, the below average children in experimental group were given an intervention programme for a period of one month. After intervention programme, the respondents were again assessed for their level of motor skills in both the experimental and control groups. It was found that there was a certain impact of intervention programme on the respondents in experimental group. The respondents of control group showed a little improvement due to the maturation (physically as well as mentally) they received with time.