This study uses cross sectional observation and survey on a sample of 285 children, including 138 boys and 147 girls, with arithmetic performance levels ranging between classes lower kindergarten and four. Their chronological age ranged between 5-14 years. The sample included children from schools following curriculum according to CBSE (N: 65), ICSE (N: 33) and/or State syllabus (N: 187). For the purpose of this study, two survey schedules were prepared and used. The 'Demographic Survey Schedule' carried questions to elicit data on personal, school and parent details along with a teacher estimate on grade equivalence of math competencies for a given child included in this sample. Another 'Number Competencies Schedule' comprised of 50 behaviorally worded items relating to various number activities taken from their official curriculum. The test items were arranged in an increasing order of difficulty levels. Their scoring was adopted on an all-or-none basis by giving one mark for every item with three trials or options passed and no mark for every item failed by the students included in this sample. The maximum score possible on this Schedule for any student who passes all the 50 items in this Scale is 153. The 3-week test retest reliability check carried out on this schedule revealed a coefficient value of 0.94. Its concurrent validity against teacher ratings of the same children on their overall math competencies was measured to be 0.84. The results of the study indicate that it is possible to construct a hierarchical and behavior based scale to assess number skills in preschool and primary school children. There is promise for use of this scale even for planning remediation or intervention strategies and programs for children with arithmetic difficulties.
Occupational stress is a crucial indicator which determines quality of services provided by special educators as well as is a pivotal factor in personal effectiveness and organizational success. Occupational stress has a significant bearing on job satisfaction and mental health. The present study is an endeavour to investigate the occupational stress of teachers working in schools meant for children with mental handicap, hearing handicap, visual handicap and physical handicap. The study constituted of a total sample of 300 teachers divided in four groups. Each of the four groups comprised of 75 special educators. The tool used in the study, was Occupational stress index. The statistical techniques used for analyzing the data were, mean, SD, and ANOVA. Educators working for children with mental retardation experienced most occupational stress when compared to other groups of special educators. Role ambiguity, Role conflict and Intrinsic improvement were reported by special educators working with the mentally retarded as important factors for Occupational stress. Special educator working for children with mentally retardation and physically handicapped reported “Responsibility for Persons” as a central factor, when compared to others. “Poor Peer relations” was seen as an imperative factor leading to Occupational stress by special educators working with the visually impaired. Similarly, Special educators working with the hearing impaired reported “role overload” and “Un profitability” as significant factors. In the modern era of rehabilitation, a high level of job satisfaction, good mental health status and lower occupational stress is needed among special educators to bring considerable changes among children with special educational needs.
To minimize the prevalence rate of learning disabilities it is important to prevent it at the early stage. Parents are first teacher of children and most of the time children spend with their parents during early period of their life. The early treatment by parents may play the role of vaccination to prevent the problem of learning. Young children can be prepared and need to be prepared systematically from the early age to make the link from spoken to written language. This preparation may follow the form of games, songs, dances and other playful activities to make learning fun. The article contents an instructional strategy in which author attempted to vaccinate the children at early stage by providing some systematic important Instructions to the parents to prevent their child from the serious problem of learning disabilities.
The present paper attempts to analyze the impact of creative experience and academic achievement on self-esteem of visually challenged students. The participants for the study include 100 visually challenged students and 100 sighted students belonging to the age range of 5-18 years. The participants were selected through non probability convenient sampling. To measure self-esteem the self-esteem inventory by Prasad and Thakur (1977) was used. The creative experience of the participants was measured by ratings of their concerned teachers on different areas of creativity on a five point scale. For measuring academic achievement the annual examination marks were used. The results show that creative experience and academic achievement do not predict selfesteem of visually challenged students whereas the academic achievement of sighted students significantly predict their self esteem. From the results it may be concluded that the findings of the study did not support the speculation that self-esteem of the visually challenged students would be affected by their academic achievement and creative experience. From the result it may also be concluded that the visually challenged students differ from their sighted counterparts with respect to academic achievement in the prediction of self-esteem.
The research was conducted in Hisar city of Haryana State on the mother of 150 children of 2 years old were randomly selected to study the stimulation provided for cognitive and language development of their children. Self developed inventory for cognitive and language stimulati8on was used. Sixty mothers were selected to form intervention and control group on the basis of poor stimulation. Score at pretesting stage. Home based intervention was provided to intervention: group for three mothers. Results revealed that most of the mothers (60%) provided poor stimulation for cognitive and language development of their children at pretesting. The intervention resulted to significant improvement in mother's level of stimulation for cognitive and language development of their children.
The main characteristics of learning disabled children are deficit in information processing. Remediation of learning disabilities have some basic principles:- (1) Providing opportunities and time for practice and (2) Generalizing the concept & skills that have been learned and also (3) Providing a balanced program. All these principles can be maintained by applying following approaches for teaching learning disabled .These are: Task analysis approach, Cognitive behaviour modification approach, Multisensory approaches & Direct instruction system (DISTAR) approach.Furthermore, in teaching learning process both P.I. and CAI have now advanced and clearly state that students with L.D. should be trained to use these system in order to enhance their performance in school.
Psychiatric disorders in patients with Down syndrome include various disturbances of mood, thought & behavior, which may have different causes and various relationships with Down syndrome. Information regarding psychiatric disorders in Down syndrome was obtained by sending a request to the parents of 100 individuals with Down syndrome. Age of the patients with Down syndrome ranged from 5 to 30 years. The reply containing the observations was analyzed. A total of 25 patients presented behavioral problems: 5 frequent threw temper tantrums & fought with their siblings; 4 were hyperactive and had difficulty in concentration; 4 adolescents aware of their deficits were depressed; 4 had self injurious behavior like head hitting, nail biting and nail pricking; 4 of them practiced some tic (stereotypic behavior) and 3 exhibited intermittent explosive behavior. One adult aged 27 years presented obsession towards cleanliness. Major conflicts or loses or life changes were not observed. 4 gave family history of mental retardation or psychiatric behavior. The observations of the present study indicate that parents & family, professionals & physicians interested in the welfare of the individuals with Down syndrome should be aware of the possibility of these conditions being manifested by them. Hence, continuous monitoring and follow up become necessary to diagnose & treat these psychiatric disorders for the well being of individuals with Down syndrome, their family and society.
Towards the purpose of understanding the current and past experiences of young adults with LD, 26 young adults were interviewed and qualitative methods were used for the analysis. Further, a brief questionnaire was administered to all the participants and this was analyzed quantitatively. The results were grouped under five themes: lack of awareness, academic concessions, peers, creativity and perseverance. Further, the quantitative analysis indicated shifting schools due to academic challenges, not receiving special education services in school, having a large circle of friends in college versus one or two friends in school, participation in extra-curricular activities in college, choosing Arts and Commerce academic tracks versus Science track after Std X, liking school and college, pursuing higher studies according to a chosen career plan and using the Internet.