The study was conducted to examine the adjustmental problems of stutterers. The sample for the study consisted of 30 stutterers and 30 non-stutterers. The age range of the sample was between 15 and 24 years, with educational level ranging from 10th standard to post-graduation. Bell adjustment Inventory was administrated for both the groups. The results were analysed with the help of ‘t’ test and Pearson's correlation. The results revealed that there was no significant difference between stutterers and non-stutterers on variables home, health, emotional adjustment, submissiveness, hostility and masculinity and femininity. Among stutterers a high relationship was observed between the variables home and health adjustment, home and emotional adjustment, home adjustment and hostility, health and emotionality, health and hostility and emotionality and hostility, which indicates the interdependence of these variables.
This study deals with the concept of self body image, pattern of energy expenditure, exercising tendency etc. among adolescents of different weight status comparatively and impact of diet counseling on them. The study proceeded with 300 adolescents, 150 overweight and 150 underweight. Each group further divided into two groups as control (n = 50) and experimental (n = 100) and imparted diet counseling for weight management. Obtained results revealed high dissatisfaction for body weight, high TV viewing tendency and poor weight management practices among the adolescents. Both the groups showed significant improvement in their body weight satisfaction, wrong concept of body weight status and started exercising to improve weight imbalance after counseling while TV watching remained unchanged. In this way counseling proved helpful in changing some of pursuable features of weight management practices among the adolescents.
In an Ideal world, all people would be treated equal. Realistically opportunities and needs vary. Those who need assistance cannot always afford to pay for, or to have access to quality services. People with knowledge, resources and influence have responsibility to actively support and assist people by designing and making available quality services, regardless of financial status, age and type of disability. Learning Disabilities is the largest category accounting for over half the children receiving special educational services. Most children with Learning Disabilities (about 78 %) receive services in the regular classrooms, about 21% of the children with Learning Disabilities are served in separate classes and a few children in separate schools. There is certainly a move towards identifying children with learning problems in regular schools and efforts towards making educational provisions for them. The label of Learning Disabled or other names is less important than the identification of the problem for their remediation.
The aim of the present study was to study the effects of modeling in developing self-help skills of mentally retarded children. The study was conducted in a school for the mentally handicap children. Subjects were five mentally retarded children. Age ranging between 9 to 14 years. A.B.A. experimental design was used to study the effectiveness of behavioural intervention. The intervention techniques included modeling and contingent reinforcement of target behaviours like tooth brushing and hand washing. Intervention program was conducted over a period of 3 months 15 days. Follow up data revealed significant improvement in the target behaviour.
The present study uses cross sectional observation and key informant interview techniques to elicit data on play behaviors in a group of 140 children with mild and moderate mental retardation. Their chronological ages ranges between 6-14 years. The sample included males and females Children. For the purpose of this study, three schedules were used: 'Child Survey Schedule', 'Daily Activity Log Schedule' and 'Play Behavior Survey Schedule'. Content analysis of patterns of play behavior reveals that majority of these children are passive observers of play by others without even understanding their rules and regulations (N: 130; 92.9 %). They show several positive behaviors like love for sharing their belongings with others or play materials with others (N: 124; 88.6 %). They indulge in pretentious or imaginary play (N: 92; 65.7 %), show empathy with peers (N: 86; 61.4 %), love to show their new toys to others (N: 85; 60.7 %), recognize and preserve their own belongings (N: 71; 50.7 %), etc. It is also seen that very few of these children with mental retardation understand rules and regulations in game situations (N: 16; 11.4 %). Many of them show difficulties in postponement of own wishes to meet demands of game situations (N: 14; 10.0 %), do not register spontaneous protest over foul play or breach of rules by mates in game situations (N: 5; 3.6 %), lack the knack to maintain 'secrets' during game or play situations (N: 5; 3.6 %), etc. In sum, there are different trends in the play preferences and patterns of children with mental retardation especially in comparison to those of children with autism spectrum disorders. The absence of social play, poor understanding of rules and regulations, absence of symbolic or representational play are some of the differentiating highlights between the two groups of children with disabilities. There is also need to explore socio-demographic correlates and other family variables in relation to play behaviors of children with mental retardation.
The present research was conducted to develop a checklist to identify the problems of special education teachers working in schools for mentally retarded. Survey method is employed in the study. The sample consist of 293 teachers for mentally retarded children drawing from 40 special schools located in four districts of Andhra Pradesh (Hyderabad & Chittour) and Tamil Nadu (Chennai & Madurai) States. The study revealed that the problems like lack of clarity in the concept of disabilities, non-availability of academic records, inadequate infrastructure facilities, lack of collaboration with other professionals, inadequate salary and job security, problems in involving parents, competency in organizing special sports and cultural activitites to mentally retared children are highlighted under the dimension `Planning and Organization'. Likewise, under the dimension `Teaching and Training' inadequate knowledge about the fundamental aspects of human body, lack of skill in modifying the curriculum to the needs of children with disabilities, lack of knowledge in the use of novel methods such as peer-tutoring, co-operative learning, problems in auditory and speech training in classroom setup and lack of proficiency in multi-sensory approach are highlighted. These are the problems faced by the teachers. Similarly, under the dimension `Guidance and Counseling', the teachers face the problems such as lack of conceptual clarity about the disbilities and developmental delays, lack of expertise in group counseling to develop positive attitude towards with different didsbilities.
The present study revealed that the systematic planning of Individualized Instructions of academic skills for a group of moderate mentally retarded children can facilitate special educators for effective use of multi-sensory approach, peer tutoring and co-operative learning methods of teaching in the classroom setting as they enhanced the proficiency and maintenance of learning academic skills among the subjects and also increased the better use of instructional time and efficient student management. For this purpose, the study was conducted with hundred moderate mentally retarded children in three stages. Madras Development Programming System- Behavioural Scale (MDPS) developed by Jeyachandran & Vimla (2000) was used to collect the data in functional academic skills i.e. reading, writing, number, time and money skills. The collected data was analyzed with the help of statistical techniques, which are mean, Standard Deviation and t-test. The mean gain scores were also recorded for both the experimental and control groups of the subjects. The results showed that there exists significant difference in the mean gain scores of academic skills in moderate mentally retarded children of both the groups.
Down's Syndrome is a cluster of features resulting from a trisomy of chromosome 21. The cluster of features includes anomalies in the structures and functions of various organs, sensory problems, intellectual impairment as well as higher order problems such organs, sensory problems, intellectual impairment as well as higher order problems such as those in auditory memory, auditory and visual perception, etc. All these lead to a language delay which is disproportionately greater than would be expected from the non-verbal cognitive delay. The aim of this paper is to highlight the areas of intervention in a child with Down's Syndrome and to exphasize that change can be brought about even in an individual in his/her early adolescence, with concentrated and holistic intervention, accompanied by parental co-operation. Literature supporting and opposing this view has been explored. To illustrate the above mentioned point of view, a case of a 12 year old female with Down's syndrome who was successfully rehabilitated, has been discussed, thus concluding that rather than forming an opinion on prognosis by generalization from previous experiences, every child should be given a chance.