Arithmetic is a science pertaining to carrying out calculations that involve numbers. So, it is very concrete in nature. Visual perceptual skill is very important to mastering arithmetic. A student who sees`6' as `9' or `+' as `x' is going to get his answers wrong. These children seem to be trying hard, but they fail, presumably as a result of some kind of cognitive difficulty. Of course, it makes no sense to suppose that merely labelling these children as learning disabled explains anything. In general, using diagnostic lables, definitions, categories (learning disability, learning difficulty, etc.) is only the first step in understanding the phenomenon that needs to be understood. The aim of the researcher was to identify the subset of chindren and to provide useful conceptualizations of the cognitive difficulties experienced by the children with arithmetic learning disabilities.
Suitable measures of educational aspiration, vocational preference and socio-economic status were administered to a sample of 50 students studying in Ahmadi School for Blind, A.M.U. Aligarh. The data had been collected through interview technique due to the unavailability of tests in Braille Script. Co-efficient of Inter correlation among afore mentioned variables and the final achievement were computed. Principal Axis method factored the inter-correlation matrix. A factor loading of 0.50 and above was considered significant for a particular factor. The major findings are : (i) educational aspiration and academic success are positive and significantly related with each other, (ii) vocational preference also played an important role in academic success and (iii) visually challenged from high socio-economic status displayed maximum magnitude of aspiration while its minimum magnitude was seen in the low socio-economic status of the category.
The study explores and analyses the pattern of social maturity of persons with multiple disabilities using the Indian adaptation to Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS). The sample consists of 30 persons with multiple disabilities and are classified into three groups as per their nature of disability. The study revealed that the Persons with multiple disabilities are better in the areas of self-help dressing, communication, occupation and socialization in comparison to self-direction. The group of mental retardation with hearing impairment, mental retardation with visual impairment and mental retardation with motor impairment differ significantly in the area of locomotion. The social maturity of persons having mental retardation with hearing impairment is higher, followed by the social maturity of persons having mental retardation with motor impairment and mental retardation with visual impairment.
In the present study an effort has been made to present an empirical validation of certain psychological dimensions underlying drug abuse phenomenon among street childern with respect to gender differences. Certain hypotheses relating to self-concept as well as locus of control were formulated. Sample consisted of 20 subjects including 15 boys and 5 girls who were current substance abusers living on the streets of Delhi. Self-concept and locus of Control was assessed with the help of seperate scales. Significant difference were found between the two groups on all the five dimensions of self-concept, i.e. behavior, intellectual status, physical appearance, anxiety and happiness and satisfaction. Also, there was significant difference in the mean scores of boys and girls on locus of control. Certain suggestions to eradicate the menace of sexual abuse among street children have been extended.
The aim of the present investigation was to study self-esteem and adjustment of children with learning disabilities. Sample of the present study consisted of 40 children. 20 were children with learning disabilities and 20 were normal children. Self-esteem was measured by Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form) developed by Cooper-Smith (1981) and adjustment was measured by Adjustment Investory for School Students by Sinha and Singh (1984). t-test showed that children with learning disabilities had lower self-esteem than normal children in the domains of general-self, home-parents and total self-esteem. However, no significant difference was found between these two groups on social selfpeer and school academic domains of self-esteem. The adjustment scores showed that children with learning disabilities had significantly poorer adjustment than normal children in all the areas assessed, i.e., educational, emotional, social and also in total adjustment.
Loss of one's body part can give rise to grief for loss of body image and functions. Such victims are usually preoccupied with feeling of the loss that may lead to missing the physical attractiveness as well as the physical/occupational functions. People with this loss might have certain psychological problems affecting their life. Hence the purpose of this study was to assess the coping strategies employed by amputees to deal with this situation, in relation to their quality of life. For this 40 amputees (at least 6 months after amputaton) in the age group of 18-55 years of either sex from district Haridwar were included in the study. The Coping Checklist and WHO quality-of-life scales were used to measure coping strategies as well as quality-of-life of such people. Critical analyses of the data shows that such people were high on problem solving, positive cognitive, religious, negative cognitive, help seeking and avoidance coping strategies. Amputees with coping strategies like problem solving, religious distraction and have better quality of life. The use of coping strategies like negative cognitive has poor effect on quality of life.
Antisocial behaviour in students has been a problem faced by all societies. With increase in incidence, this doorway to crime is rapidly becoming a serious menace in India. Antisocial behaviour in students not only causes distress to the individual concerned but also to the community and society at large. Researches generally agree that antisocial behaviour in students is a multicausational phenomenon and its genesis cannot be attributed to one single factor. In this article, the authors have highlighted the various causes and characteristics of students with antisocial behaviour, development of antisocial behaviour and need for inclusion of students with antisocial behaviour in community and school settings. They have emphasized the need for conducting a survey in different localities to get a clear picture about the prevalence of antisocial behaviour in students to develop interventional programmes at the individual, parental, peer group and neighbourhood levels. They have advocated that through constructive strategies such as cooperative learning, problem solving, role playing, classroom discussion, parental training, positive peer group associations etc., the teachers can help students develop critical thinking skills to denounce thinking errors and thereby, antisocial behaviours.