The research was aimed at investigating whether there are difficulties in the recognition and discrimination of facial emotions in mildly mentally retarded children as compared to individuals with an average intelligence. The research further aimed to investigate whether there are differences in the recognition and discrimination of facial emotions in caricatures and photographs, in children with mild mental retardation and with an average intelligence. The sample (n = 40) consisted of 20 individuals with mild mental retardation and 20 individuals with an average level of intellectual functioning. There was an equal number of males (n = 10) and females (n = 10) in each group. This gender variable, however, is not discussed as a central one in this paper. The EDLOF (Sovani, 2002) was used to measure the ability to recognize and discriminate facial emotions in caricatures. Another similar measure of Emotion Identification and Recognition of Faces developed on the basis of EDLOF was used to measure the ability to recognize and discriminate facial emotions in photographs. Two-wayANOVA'S were used as a statistical measure in order to see whether the two groups differed significantly across the various experimental conditions. It was found that the children with an average I.Q. were able to identify more facial emotions correctly and had a lower reaction time than the individuals with mild mental retardation across the various experimental conditions (p<.o1). It was further found there was a significant difference in the reaction time for caricatures (ie the EDLOF) and photographs (p < 0.05), the reaction time for caricatures being lower than the reaction time for photographs. Findings are discussed with reference to relevance of EDLOF, a new measure, for use in special groups, and the importance of correct emotion perception for social adjustment.
The study aimed to elucidate the main conjoint effects of levels of regional `development' (low, moderate and high), `employment (unemployed and employed), and `beneficiary' (non beneficiary and beneficiary of development programs) variables on attitudinal patterns pertaining to the changing traditional systems and practices, political environment, economic growth and development, marriage practices, increasing divorce rate, modernization, and migration and settlement of nonMizos into the community. The attitudinal patterns were measured through the three factors of Evaluation(E), Activity (A) and Potency(P) factors behind Semantic Differential Scales(SDS) 3x2x2 ANOVA (3 development x 2 beneficiary on E factor of SDS and post ANOVA multiple comparisons on each of the socially relevant dimensions revealed differential attitudinal patterns : (i) more liberal attitudes in subjects of high than in moderate, and more than in subjects of the low developed region, (ii) in beneficiaries than in non-beneficiaries, and (iii) in employed than in unemployed subjects on all (except for `employment' effect on changing political environment and modernization dimensions) measures of the dependant variables. `The result have been discussed in the light of studies on psychological antecedents and consequent of socio-cultural change and development.
This research study was designed to know the effect of phonological intervention on the performance of reading disabled children. Initially two hundred boys of grade one, attending different schools, were taken as subjects. A few reading tasks were administered on all these children. On the basis of their performance, those who did poorly on all the tests and swred below 25th percentile point were considered as reading disabled children. Forty of these children were randomly selected for the phonological training programme. One month training programme began in which four weekly training sessions were conducted. Once again, these same reading tasks were administered during the post training session. The results revealed phonological training had significantly improved the performance during the post training session.
Autism is a life long developmental disorder that affects individuals' ability to communicate, form relationships with others and responds appropriately to the environment which results into entirely a different type of personality. It is generally seen as the expression of some underlying brain dysfunction that is associated with multiple etiologies, any one of which could potentially cause central nervous system dysfunction. An autistic child has abnormalities in different developments around two and a half years of age. It is in fact not mental retardation but due to other associated disorders such as epilepsy, convulsions, seizures, the child may develop mental retardation. Due to cognitive deficits and restricted academic abilities, only basic skills' training can be imparted to these children. Emphasis should be laid on making them efficient in daily life skills, language, reading, writing and arithmetic. Besides, they should be taught the most important rudiment of socialization i.e. interaction with others. Community residential facility (CRF) may be very helpful to these children.
This study aimed at (i) studying the physical, curricular and administrative factors of school effectiveness at primary stage and (ii) finding out how these school effectiveness factors, when taken individually and also when taken as a whole contribute to enhance the learning achievement of 5th standard pupils at primary stage. Data were collected through four point rating scales (i) to assess the physical factors of school effectiveness at primary stage, (ii) to assess the curricular factors of school effectiveness at primary stage and (iii) to assess the administrative factors of school effectiveness at primary stage from a sample of 242 primary schools consisting of 741 teachers and headmasters in total, selected on the basis of simple random sampling technique in Aruppukottai Education District of Tamilnadu. Data obtained with the help of the three rating scales were combined together and considered as the physical, curricular and administrative factors taken as a whole. The annual examination marks of 5th standard pupils were considered for learning achievement in the prescribed cognitive subjects (Tamil, English, Mathematics, Environmental studies - II / Science, Environmental studies - I / Social Science) and subjects as a whole Karl Pearson's Product Moment Correlation technique was applied to find out the relationship between the physical, curricular and administrative factors taken individually and as a whole and the learning achievement of 5th standard pupils at primary stage. The study found that there was low and positive relationship between the physical, curricular and administrative factors when considered individually and also when taken as a whole and the learning achievement of 5th standrd pupils in each subject and subjects as a whole but it was not significant. It was also found that the relationship between the administrative factors of school effectiveness and learning achievement in Tamil was negative and not significant.
Mental retardation is not primarily a medical problem. It is an educational, psychological and social problem. Facilities for educating the retarded have been expanded in recent years, both on a private and a public basis, in the clinics, school and recration programs. Education of the retarded must be understood in its broadest possible context. Education does not limit itself to only academic or mere text book learning, rather it is more concerned with the all round development of an individual. Intelligence level of trainable and educable mentally retarded children was assessed following MDPS (Madras Developmental Programming System) scale developed by NIMH, Secunderabad, and home environmental factors were studied with the help of a duly pre-tested interview schedule. The results revealed that most of the mentally retarded children (66%) were having moderate level of intelligence and fall between IQ range of 40-55 and socio-personal and economic factors were positively associated with existing intelligence level.