The current study aims at revealing how widespread the taking of psychoactive substances is among Kuwait university students (338 males, 479 females, 17-31 years old), and the beliefs and attitudes of those students towards such substances. A specially designed scale was used. It included 50 items whose reliability and validity were verified. The results of this study reveal that the psychoactive substances most widespread among students were: alcohol, smoking, psychotropic drugs (taken without medical prescription), natural drugs and heroin. It was also found that the substance-using students had more belief in the benefits of these substances than non-users. It was also shown that substance - using students were more susceptible to somatic and psychological disorders. The results showed that the users of any psychoactive substance are more likely to take other substances than non users.
The objective of the study was two fold. Firstly, to understand the problems encountered by the visually handicapped in their daily social life and in the educational institution. Secondly, to compare the efficacy of the integrated education system with that of the special education system. A total number of 101 visually handicapped children, 51 attending special education and 50 attending integrated education, aged between 10-19 years, were selected purposively from two pioneer residential schools for the blind population in Kolkata. Data were collected through face-to-face interview method using a semi-structured questionnaire. A comparative analysis of qualitative data to adjudge the efficacy of integrated education and special education revealed that integrated education in Narendrapur Blind Boys Academy is more effective in motivating the blind students to compete with sighted children and in helping them to develop a positive outlook towards their future, something which is almost absent among sightless children undergoing special education in Calcutta Blind School.
HIV is a disease of recent origin (Suri, 2002). The nature of AIDS is discussed briefly in this paper. Accordingly, the primate lentiviruses, including HIV, are additionally able to infect CD4+ cells, a component of the immune system. HIV’s sole activity is the production of new copies on itself in the host cell. HIV infection persists for many years; attrition of the immune cells needed to fight infection gradually leads to an inability to generate new immune response required to suppress HIV, and the replication rate of the viruses increases to extremely high levels. There are broadly two distinct human immunodeficiency viruses; HIV-1 and HIV-2. The etiology and spread of aids is also discussed. There are five key factors that cause of spread of AIDS virus. HIV can be passed on because the virus is present in the sexual fluids and blood of infected people. If infected blood or sexual fluid gets into one’s blood, then one will become infected. While discussing the global scenario it is pointed out that AIDS is one of the major reason of death. The HIV virus which cause AID has brought a global epidemic for more extensive than was predicted even a decade ago. In all parts of the world except Sub-Saharan Africa, there are more men infected with HIV and dying of AIDS than women. The risk behaviour amongst various countries and various strategies for tackling this epidemic have been discussed.
The present investigation was aimed at assessing the behavioural problems among hearing-impaired and normal children. A sample of mothers of 30 hearing-impaired and 30 normal children were interviewed on the basis of behavioural problems check list to obtain nature and intensity of various behavioural problems. Results revealed that there was a significant difference between hearing-impaired and normal children with regard to behavioural problems. The need for interventions were high- lighted.
In this paper, causative factors for learning disabilities in children have been indicated so as to enable to identify such children at the primary school level. Some different practical way for effective management of these children have also been explained in the paper.
The present study has been designed to study the problems of parents of those mentally retarded children who have been assessed as spastic cerebral palsy by the school authorities of mentally handicapped institutes at the time of admission. `Parents Problem Questionnaire' was given individually to each parent to know their problems about their spastic children. The present study revealed that less educated parents and parents belonging to low income group and rural area have significantly more problems about their spastic children than their counterparts.
One group of professionals who are involved predominantly in the management of individuals with mental retardation are Special Educators. Special Educators play a vital role in training and educating the individual with mental retardation, leading to their rehabilitation. It is well known that Special Educators find it difficult to train individuals, who are Profoundly Mentally Retarded (PMR), as they are much slower in learning than individuals with Mild and Moderate Retardation. This paper include the basic characteristics, educability of individuals who are PMR, the existing approaches, characteristics of educational planning and competencies of the educators, which may help the special educators to build up the skills to deal with these individuals effectively.