This paper reviews the role of the hippocampus in relation to memory. A distinction is made between declarative memory (explicit memory) and unconscious memory (implicit memory). Declarative memory is a memory for facts and events. It depends on the hippocampus and other related structures like the temporal lobe and diencephalon. Non-declarative (Implicit memory) is a heterogeneous collection of separate abilities that can be additionally dissociated from each other. These memory abilities depend on brain systems outside the media temporal lobe. The hippocampus is essential for the formation of episodic and semantic memories; the relationships and characteristics of spatial layouts; and other associative or sequential items and their relationship to experiences. Damage to the hippocampal region through accident or disease can result in an amnesiac syndrome rendering an individual effectively imprisoned in the past. Various experimental findings in relation to disease and damage of the hippocampus have been discussed.
Academic performance of 79 visually impaired, 80 hearing-impaired and 111 nonimpaired male and female adolescents in grade VIII and X following one curriculum was investigated. Final examination marks were considered as indicators of academic performance. Their age ranged from 13-21 years and majority of them were from the lower middle class family background. Results revealed that the impaired groups performed significantly better than the non-impaired, while the visually impaired were the best performers. Adolescents in grade VIII and females performed significantly better than their respective counterparts in grade X and the males. Interesting interaction effects also emerged from the results. Findings were discussed according to the impairment specific needs and problems, and education and examination system.
Depression show feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, inadequacy and sadness. These may be symptomatic of several disorders, however, these feelings occur also in normal persons. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder, this is a illness where person refuses to eat because of worry. The depression scale was administered on fifty anorexic and fifty non-anorexic persons in the age group of 16 to 21 years. Results indicate that anorexic and non-anorexic patients significantly differ on depression. And female anorexic patients are more close to depression than male anorexic patients.
The primary task in the classroom is learning. Learning is a step by step, complex, interwoven and multi-level process. It comprises of the complex sequential processes of input, processing and output. Each of these have several essential components and impairment or dysfunctioning of any one of these, causes problems in learning. These problems have come to be referred to as Learning Disability. We are very much aware that the number of children requiring help is considerably large and the task ahead is massive. In addition, the evaluation system which is predominantly based on written examination is a disadvantage to the learning disabled child. So these issues reflect on identification, assessment, programme planning, educational service provisions and evaluation systems and above all the legal aspects. Nevertheless, moving from the stage of no attention, to provision of services at various levels is an achievement in itself. The fact that efforts are continuing, gives hope for a better future for children with Learning Disabilities.
The study was conducted on 4-6 years old slow and average learner children in Hisar city of Haryana State. The sample consisted of 160 pre-schoolers in which 80 were slow learners (IQ : 70-90) and 80 were average learners (IQ : 90-110) Standard - Binet Intelligence Scale was used to categorize the children according to their IQ level. The perceptual and conceptual abilities were assessed with the help of standardized cognitive test. The average learners were found to perform better than slow learners in both perceptual and conceptual abilities.
The causes of mental retardation are diverse and complex and arise from genetic and environmental factors. In the present paper the etiology of mental retardation in 98 referred cases belonging to the age category of 0-10 years were analysed. The results indicated that there is increasing evidence on the possible interaction between biological and psychological factors for all grades of Mental Retardation. Prenatal psychological stress turned out to be an important factor in 15.3% cases as possible etiological factor. The need of making the routine prenatal gynaecological examination more meaningful by taking care of the pregnant women's mental health needs too are highlighted.
This study aimed to investigate the personality type of End Stage renal disease patients. The sample consisted of sixty End Stage renal failure patients, sixty general medical patients and sixty normal control group, aged between twenty-five to fifty five years. Tool used was Personality Stress Questionnaire, Version B by Grossarth and Eysenck. Results indicated that End Stage renal patients belong to the type fifth personality, which represents pathologically rational and anti- emotional behaviour, who cannot tolerate feelings of anxiety and have a strong belief that every behaviour is completely determined by rational motives rather than any emotion.
It is not possible to conceive the rehabilitation plan for persons with mental illness, without focusing on the disabilities of psychological and social nature. The Disability Act has included "Mental illness in the orbit and it has become our endevour to analyse the Disability Act in terms of legislation, programme resources, trained manpower, families knowledge. Workshop to become a viable, credible service approach. This exercise will help us to develop awareness programs, workshops, educational materials and technical manuals in enhancing the knowledge of professionals, the voluntary agencies and the caregivers towards the welfare of the mentally ill.
Stress is one of the major problems affecting people in the modern society. It has serious and far reaching negative consequences to become a biggest hazard for mental and physical health of human life. Hence it is essential to help individuals by training them how to manage or deal with their stress...... A certain amount of stress provides stimulation, but prolonged, unmanaged stress can cause mental and physical damage in the person affecting his productivity and performance. In such situations, Stress management programs play a significant role helping to adopt a practical approach to life’s problems because Stress is nothing but an attitude towards problems and the reactions towards them.